Vegetable Efficacy: Spinach

Efficacy’s and Benefits of Spinach (Amaranthus)

Spinach is familiar vegetable. Many efficacy’s and benefits of spinach that we can take. Spinach have a high iron content and can be used to increase blood.

Plant description:

Shrub, straight trunk, round shape, yellowish green color. Single leaf interspersed with lanceolate shape, the flat edge of the pointed end of the base is blunt, light green to yellowish green. Inflorescence of panicle, attached to the armpit of the leaf, the petals share five, the flower crown is purplish green. Fruit round stone, shiny, blackish brown color.

Parts used: leaves and roots

Chemical content that has the efficacy’s and benefits of spinach include:

  • Substances: proteins, fats, Potassium compounds, calcium, phosphorus, iron, minerals, sodium, potassium, biotin, vit E, magnesium, manganese, and aluminum, pro vit A (carotenoids), vit B1, vit C and vit K , oxalic acid, folic acid, chlorophyll and saponins.

Efficacy and benefits of spinach from the content:

  • Potassium: one of efficacy’s and benefits of spinach is helps the heart work and normalizes blood pressure
  • Calcium: replenish bone density, play a role in tooth formation, help blood clots, nerve transmission, muscle stimulation, blood acid stability (pH), and maintain water balance.
  • Phosphorus: for healthy teeth and bones
  • Iron: for the formation of red blood cells and plays a role in the central regulation of the hemoglobin molecule, red blood cells also play a role in energy metabolism, including synthetic DNA by several enzymes, and in the immune system.
  • Sodium: maintain the balance of fluid in the body, and maintain and regulate osmotic pressure so that the liquid does not come out of the blood and enter the cell (in maintaining body fluid balance, sodium works with potassium), also plays a role in nerve transmission, muscle contraction , glucose absorption, and as a means of transporting nutrients through cell membranes
  • Biotin: plays a role in the production and use of fats and amino acids
  • Vitamin E: acts as an antioxidant that can reduce the bad effects of free radicals, the aging process, and carcinogens, also functions to maintain cell membrane integrity, synthetic DNA, prevent coronary heart disease, prevent miscarriages and sterilization, and prevent menstrual disorders.
  • Vitamin C: needed to make collagen (fibrous protein that forms connective tissue in bones), fat transporter, electron transporter from various enzymatic reactions, healthy gum triggers, cholesterol level regulators. As immune system triggers, anti-oxidants, help prevent various types of cancer: lung, colon, bladder, pancreas, breast cancer, also reduce free radicals that trigger cancer. Vitamin C can also reduce the risk of cataracts, strengthen blood capillary walls, reduce the risk of heart disease, inhibit aging, renew white blood cells. Vitamin C is very sensual to form sperm. Lack of vitamin C in men can inhibit obtaining offspring, repair takes one month by increasing vitamin C by 500 mg. The quality and quantity of sperm and its activities can be increased by consuming vitamin C. In addition vitamin C can reduce the risk of passive smoking. The risk of passive smoking is cell damage that can cause cancer or other respiratory diseases.
  • Magnesium: acts as a catalyst in biological reactions in the body, including reactions related to metabolism of energy, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids. It also plays a role in the synthesis, degradation, and stability of DNA gene material.
  • Manganese: to keep the central nervous system in order to function normally, and can help improve memory
  • Pro vitamin A: Beta carotene is an anti-oxidant that maintains health and inhibits the aging process, and can also prevent and suppress cancer cell growth and protect polyunsaturated fatty acids from the oxidation process. And if the body needs vitamin A then beta carotene in the liver will be converted into vitamin A
  • Vitamin A Function : can prevent night blindness, accelerate wound healing, and shorten the length of measles
  • Vitamin K: plays a role in the processes that occur in the body. Through the latest research, vitamin K is known to act as an anti-aging that is more effective than vitamin E, vitamin K also plays a role in preventing serious diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, because the effect can reduce hardening of the arteries by factors such as calcium plaque deposits. Some studies also show that vitamin K plays a role in treating cancer because it has been shown to act as a poison in cancer cells, but does not harm healthy cells.
  • Carotene: antioxidant, anticancer, enhances immunity
  • Folic acid: plays a role in the formation of red blood cells and white blood in the spinal cord
  • Chlorophyll: can promote the production of hemoglobin, and reduce its output during menstruation, chlorophyll also contains other compounds in complex chloroplasts, including carotene and vitamin K which are beneficial for health.
  • Saponins: are binding and reduce cholesterol, stimulate immunity, prevent coronary heart disease, and as an anti-cancer
  • Antipyretics, sudorifik, diuretics: Good for the digestive system, lowers the risk of cancer, anti diabetes, weight loss, lowers blood cholesterol, prevents anemia

Potions and Measures:

Potion that can be make from spinach that have efficacy’s and benefits of spinach

  1. Anemia : Spinach to taste, enough water. Juice the spinach then drink
  2. Anemia : 1 handful thorny amaranth, 1 chicken egg yolk, 1 tablespoon honey, 1½ cup water. Wash the thorny amaranth leaves, then mash finely give ½ cup of boiled water, squeeze / strain, add egg yolks and honey, mix well. Drink this concoction 1 glass twice a day.
  3. Hemorrhoid: eat boiled spinach to taste
  4. Bronchitis: 1 handful of fresh spinach leaf, linchen ½ tsp, Pule bark (powder) 1 tsp Water 110 ml. All ingredients are boiled with water. Drink 2 times a day, morning and evening, every time drink 100 ml. Do it for 14 days
  5. Low blood: 200 gr red spinach, 40 gr red onion, 10 gr chili, 5 gr palm sugar, 5 gr asam kawak, 5gr pepper, 1 tsp of salt. Steam the spinach until half cooked. While other ingredients are finely ground as chili sauce. Spinach and chili use as a daily meal menu.
  6. Cleanse the blood after giving birth and maintain and improve the work of the kidneys: Spinach to taste, enough water. Make clear spinach soup. Spinach is consumed in the form of clear spinach soup.

Efficacy’s and benefits of spinach are good for health but we also have to take note of this note:

  • Sufficiently high uric acid sufferers and rheumatic gout are prohibited from consuming too much spinach because spinach contains quite high purine. In the body purine will be metabolosir into uric acid.
  • For treatment, red spinach is considered more efficacious than green spinach.
  • Due to the large amount of spinach contains oxalic acid, spinach should be boiled first for a few moments before consumption to eliminate the sour taste.
  • Children should not over-consume.


  • Ernawati Santoso, 1986. Faculty of Pharmacy, WIDMAN. Doing research with infusion of red spinach leaves orally to serum iron, hemoglobin, and hematocrit in rabbits made anemia. The result was 30% red spinach leaf infusion can increase serum iron, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels significantly when compared with the group given distilled water. A significant increase in hematocrit hemoglobin levels when compared with groups treated with distilled water. Increases in hemoglobin, hematocrit levels were no different than those given ferrous sulfas.

Also read : fruit efficacy

Fruit Efficacy: Corn

Efficacy and Benefits of Corn    (Zea Mays)

Corn plant description:

This type of grass plant is a seasonal plant. Cluster habitus, erect, height of about 1.5 meters. Massive round stem, unbranched, base point is rooted stem, yellow or orange. Single leaf, midrib, round shape, pointed tip, flat edge, length about 35 – 100cm, width 3 – 12cm, green color. Compound interest, single home, male and female flowers, grain shape, located at the end of the stem and in the armpits of leaves, purple stamens, egg round fruit, white color. Fruit shape of cob, length 8 – 20cm, yellowish green color. Round seeds are yellow or white. Root fibers, dirty white color.

Corn is from America. These foods are grown on dry areas from lowlands up to 2000 m above sea level.

Parts used: the whole plant is nutritious medicine, from seeds, hair, cobs, roots to leaves. Kidney stone disease can be overcome with corncob stew drink every day, of course in a long term. The old corn seeds roast until cracked and crunchy eaten every day is useful for pregnant women as a facilitator of the release of breast milk.

Chemical content:

  • Hair: Saponins, tannins, flavones, essential oils, fatty oils, alantoin, and bitter substances, potassium nitrate, vitamin K, alpha-tocopherol quinone, B-sitosterol, stigmasterol, yushushu acid and volatile alkaloids.
  • Flowers: stigmasterol
  • Seeds: sugar, zeaxanthin, protein, maizenic acid, hexaphosphate acid, vitamin B1, B2, B6. Alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and polyphenols.
  • Corn oil: linoleic acid 50%, oleic acid 37%, palmitic acid 10%, and stearic acid 3%.

Nutrition and Phytonutrients:

  • Fatty acids
  • Beta Carotene (Pro vitamin A), Vitamin B1, B2, niacin, and folic acid.
  • Mineral iron, magnesium, potassium / potassium, potassium, phosphorus, and potassium.
  • Fiber

Benefits: Build muscle and bone. Good for the brain and nervous system. Prevent constipation. Reduce the risk of cancer and heart. Cut into cavities.

Benefits: hair and cob are useful to overcome kidney infections, inflammation of the kidney, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, overcoming difficult urination, and swelling, both for people with diabetes, gall stones, inflammation of bile and hepatitis. Seed nutritious to multiply breast milk, kidney stone drugs, puerperal fever medicine, heart medications and exuviate urine .


Content and Benefits:

  • Potassium in hair and young cobs: diuretic
  • Thiamin: dry the wound (like chicken pox wound)
  • Phosphorus: good for bones and teeth

Parts used: Corn hair, cobs, roots and leaves.


Usage Dose:

Internal usage:

  • Caster: 25 – 30 grams fresh or 9 – 12 grams dried, boiled and drunk the decoction
  • Hair: 50 – 150 gr, boiled and drink the stew
  • Cob and hairs baked or baked into powder
  • Leaf: brewed as tea.
  • Root: 60 -240 gr baked.

Outside usage:

  • Hair is smoked.
  • Corncobs were burnt to ashes and put in sick places.


Potions and measures:

  1. Expedite breast milk: some old corn kernels roasted until cracked and crisp then eaten or eating corn on the cob.
  2. Gallstones: 5 young corn cobs + boiled hair with 1 liter of water remaining ½ liters, strain for 3 drinks 3 times a day.
  3. Kidney stones: 4 young corn cobs + 1 handful corn hair, boiled with 1 liter of remaining water ½ liter, strain then divide into 3 glasses drink 3 times a day continue for 14 days.
  4. Inflammation of the kidneys: 15 young corn cobs + boiled hair with 3 cups water remaining 2 ¼ cup cold water. Drink the water 3x a day ¾ cup and eat the corn on the meal
  5. Inflammation and kidney stones: the leaves of corn drink as tea


  • Corn improves kidney work, so many urines is formed
  • Already patented in the form of tablets and extract liquid corn hair



Sukesri Hardianto, 1989. Faculty of Pharmacy UGM. Advisor: Dr. Ediati S. Apt. and DR. Sasmito.

Has done research the influence of young corn cob infusion on the solubility of calcium kidney stone invitro. From the results of these studies, it turns out:

  1. There is influence between the infusion level and the dissolved potassium content in the solution
  2. Calcium kidney stones have the greatest solubility in young corn cob infusion with 5% concentration. At higher levels of infusion its solubility decreases.

Read also fruit efficacy and benefits of: avocado, grape, apple, starfruit and pomegranate

Fruit Efficacy: Pomegranate

Efficacy and Benefits of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum)

Pomegranate plant description:

Pomegranate is a native Persian and Himalayan plant in southern India (middle east), spread across Indonesia. High shrub plants 2-5 meters. Stems woody, round, branched, young stems are brown, after old dirty green. Single leaf, lanceolate shape, length 1-8 cm, width 5-15 mm, bony pinnate, green color. Single flower at the end of the branch, crown rounded in red or yellow. Single fruit, round, 5-12 cm diameter, yellowish green color.

The pomegranate is thick-skinned and the inside is a thin membrane that tastes bitter and sour. Inside are triangular and irregular seeds. Each seed has a layer consisting of fleshy meat containing a clear color liquid (outer seed skin) that taste sweet or sour sweet

Parts used: fruit peel and fruit

Chemical content:

  • Fruit skin: alkaloids, triterpenoids, glucosides, estrons, mucus, tannins, granatin, betulinic acid, ursolic acid, isoquercitrin, ellagitannin, resin, calcium, oxalate and starch.
  • Leaves: alkaloids, tannins, calcium oxalate, fat, sulfur, peroxidase.
  • Fruit: tannins, carbohydrates, maleic acid, citric acid, protein, Vitamin C, fat etc.
  • Fruit juice: citric acid, malic acid, glucose, fructose, maltose, Vitamin A and C, minerals (calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, sodium and potassium), and tannins.

Pharmacological effects and research results:

  1. Root skin: exuviate intestinal worms
  2. Fruit skin: inhibits the growth of typhoid bacilli, controlling the spread of infection, polio virus, herpes simplex virus, HIV virus
  • Pelletierine alkaloids: highly toxic and paralyzed tapeworms, roundworms, and pinworms then release their grip from the intestinal wall, thus carrying along with feces out of the body
  • Flavonoids (class polyphenols): it feels rough, antioxidants (against cancer cells)
  • Malic acid: expedite carbohydrate metabolism
  • Potassium: prevents hypertension, helps activate enzyme reactions.
  • Tannin: astringent (i.e. shrinks the intestinal lining membrane so that diarrhea discharge is reduced). Active against bacteria and viruses cause smallpox, as well as anti-diabetes, prevent heart disease and high blood
  • Phytosterol: lowers cholesterol, prevents heart disease, prevents cancer, establishes skin permeability. Maintains skin moisture, promotes skin metabolism, prevents inflammation of the skin, prevents skin penetration. Helps promote hair growth, antioxidants, maintains blood sugar balance.
  • Polyphenols (in a glass of pomegranate juice): crippling cancer cells, restoring artery walls from the hardening process. The seeds also contain polyphenols, making the pomegranate juice better with the seeds.

How to use:

  1. Internal use:
  • boiled root bark or dry bark 7 gr
  • boil the fruit skin 10-15gr
  • Eat fruit or juice made 1 fruit, can be mixed with carrot juice
  1. Outside:
  • Boil the skin of the fruit or root skin, after cold use the water to gargle on gum inflammation, sore throat, wound scalding or foot fungus infections.
  • Spray to the vagina on the vaginal discharge.
  • Use pomegranate juice for mouth rinses on thrush, gingivitis, cavities,
  • Use as a compress remedy on inflamed hemorrhoids

Usage Dose:

  1. A long-lasting cough: 1 pomegranate that is not yet ripe. Every night before bed, chew the contents of the pomegranate, remove the seeds.
  2. Worms: Boil dried pomegranate skin + betel nut powder 15gr each with 3 glasses clean water boil slowly for 1 hour. Let it cold and then filter, drink altogether before breakfast.
  3. Dysentery: 5g fresh white pomegranate + 2 fingers tilap + 6g fresh guava leaves. Boil with 110ml water, drink 1x daily 100ml, repeat for 7 days
  4. Whitish: 5g fresh pomegranate skin + 6g fresh beluntas leaves + 5g herb tread liman + 1g pack. Boil with 110ml water, drink 1x a day, repeat for 7 days
  5. Impotence: 2 pomegranates + 15g seeds chives + 15g pepper seeds + 2 tsp fennel powder + 2 tsp pulosari powder + a little salt and sugar. Boil with 2 glasses of water until thickened. Drink in cold state.
  6. Lose weight: 2 raw pomegranates take the contents, finely mashed + ½ cup cooking water and a little salt, squeeze until blended, strain with cloth, drink as well as do every day until the results appear.


  • In Indonesia pomegranate is grouped into 3 types: white, pomegranate, and black pomegranate. Red pomegranate taste more sweet and fresh. White pomegranate feels sepat and less sweet but widely used as medicine. Black pomegranate is very rare, but supposedly better than white pomegranate
  • Tannin: causes nausea and vomiting
  • Alkaloids are tannate: cause mild toxic symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, blurred vision, weakness and cramps in the lower limbs, trembling, etc. Use in high doses: cause dilated pupils, narrowed vision, headache, vertigo, nausea, diarrhea, severe weakness, sometimes seizures.
  • The use of fruit skin and tree bark for treatment should be done under the supervision of an expert
  • Ancient people have pomegranate symbol of fertility
  • Based on Dr.A.O. Prakas that the skin of pomegranates can prevent 70-90% of pregnancy or reduce fertility. So, watch out for pregnant women
  • Pregnant women and children should not consume these fruit
  • Preferably before drinking fast 12 hours
  • Because there is a toxic content mainly found in bark and root bark, treatment should be done under the supervision of an experienced herbalist.


  • Benny Hartanto, J.R. Wattimena, and Elin Yulinah

Department of Pharmacy, FMIPA ITB.

Research on the effects of white pomegranate skin as an anti-diarrhea drug in marmot. The result was able to prevent diarrhea, caused by castor oil, and have anti-bacterial effects against E-coli, shigella disentriae, and salmonella paratypha

  • Sri Indrarini, 1991.

Department of Pharmacy, FMIPA UNPAD.

Supervisor: Drs. Zaenal Alim and Dra. MarlineAbdassah, M.S

Conducting research of anti-microbial power of pomegranate skin against candida albicans, E-coli

  • Elita Rahmah, 1991.

Department of Pharmacy, FMIPA USU

Doing research of anthelmintic effect of bark of white pomegranate and papaya leaf extract, and efficacious



Table composition Nutrition per 100 grams of pomegranate

Nutrition Content                                                            Nutrition Value

Water                                                                                   80.97 g

Energy                                                                                  68 kcal

Protein                                                                                 0.95 g

Fat                                                                                         0.3 g

Carbohydrate                                                                     17.17 g

Food fiber                                                                           0.6 g

Calcium                                                                               3 mg

Iron                                                                                      0.3 mg

Magnesium                                                                        3 mg

Phosphorus                                                                        8 mg

Potassium                                                                           259 mg

Sodium                                                                                 3 mg

Zinc                                                                                       0.12 mg

Copper                                                                                 0.07 mg

Selenium                                                                             0.6 mg

Vitamin C                                                                            6.1 mg

Thiamine                                                                             0.03 mg

Riboflavin                                                                            0.03 mg

Niacin                                                                                   0.3 mg

Pantothenic acid                                                                0.596 mg

Vitamin B6                                                                          0.105 mg

Folic acid                                                                              6 mkg

Vitamin A                                                                            170 IU

Phytosterol                                                                         17 mg

Read other fruit efficacy: avocado, grape,apple

Fruit Efficacy: Starfruit

Fruit Efficacy and Benefits of Starfruit      (Averrhoa carambola L.)

Starfruit plant description:

The plant is hard-trunked and many branches. Height reaches 12 meters. The leaves are oddly finned. The flowers are dyed, reddish white. Fruit grooved, when it’s ripe the color of the fruit is yellowish green skin. Fruit meat contains a lot of water, sweet taste rather acidity, amid the fruit there are many seeds.

Chemical content & pharmacological effects:

  • High fiber: able to prevent the absorption of fat to reduce cholesterol and prevent high blood pressure, also facilitate digestion
  • Vitamin C: anti-cancer
  • Water: fever-lowering, expediting urine, releasing sputum
  • 33mg polyphenols: antioxidants because they can bind to free radicals
  • Potassium and sodium (66: 1): able to lower high blood pressure
  • Potassium and chloride: helps maintain osmotic pressure and acid-base balance.

Benefits of star fruit: antioxidant, anti-cancer, lowering blood pressure, increase immunity, prevent and treat canker sores, facilitate digestion and prevent constipation, lower cholesterol and blood sugar, thinning the phlegm and cough.


Usage Dose:

Internal use:

  • Fruit: eaten as fruit, boiled or in juice drinking water / 4 ml of star fruit juice per day, 4 ml starfruit per day
  • Flowers: 9-24gr, boiled then drink
  • Leaves: 9-12gr, boiled then drink
  • Root: 12-15 gr (fresh: 30-45 gr), boil then drink

External use: Leaves are crushed then dab to the sick place. Squeeze the leaves and  apply the water on the sick. Boiled water leaf to wash


Potions and Dosage:

  1. Uric acid: 1 sweet star fruit, 100gr green mustard, strawberry 50gr, 1 sweet orange, 1 tablespoon honey, 100ml boiled water. Blender all the ingredients. Drink.
  2. Bladder stones: 3-5 fresh sweet star fruit and 30gr honey, steamed in a sealed container, crushed. Consumption every day. Morning and night.
  3. Hiccups: 1-2 fresh star fruit, input and hold in the mouth, chew and swallow. Do it 3-4x a day. Or do when hiccups
  4. Chest tightness accompanied by nausea: take half of sweet pickled star fruit, chew gently. Wait for 3 hours before repeating this dose.
  5. High Blood: 2 sweet starfruits cooked and consume after breakfast and afternoon.


Note (how to prepare):

  • Asaman starfruit: sliced raw fruit star fruit is still raw and dry under the sun to half dry then added vinegar to taste.
  • Asinan Starfruit: sliced raw star fruit is still raw then dry under the sun until half dry then added salt to taste.
  • Manisan Starfruit: sliced raw sweet star fruit then dried under the hot sun until half dry then add sugar to taste.

All the ingredients leave for a while. And use when necessary.

Table of sweet starfruit nutrition per 100 grams

Nutrient content                              Nutritional value

  • Energy                                                31 kkal
  • Protein                                                1,04 g
  • Fat                                                       0,3 g
  • Carbohydrate                                    6,73 g
  • Fiber                                                   2,8 g
  • Sugar                                                  3,98 g
  • Calcium                                              3 mg
  • Iron                                                     0,08 mg
  • Magnesium                                       10 mg
  • Phosphor                                           12 mg
  • Potassium                                          133 mg
  • Sodium                                               2 mg
  • Zinc                                                     0,12 mg
  • Copper                                               0,14 mg
  • Manganese                                        0,04 mg
  • Selenium                                           0,6 mg
  • Vitamin C                                          34,4 mg
  • Vitamin B1                                        0,01 mg
  • Vitamin B2                                        0,02 mg
  • Niacin                                                0,37 mg
  • Vitamin B6                                       0,02 mg
  • Folate                                                 12 mkg
  • Vitamin A                                         170 IU
  • Vitamin E                                         0,15 mg
  • Vitamin K                                         14,6 mcg


  • A, Setiadi Ranti, K. Padmawinata, and A.A sumarji. Department of Pharmacy ITB. Research on the effect of hypoglycemic sweet starfruit juice on white rabbit and diuretic effect on white mice, the result is very good with a certain dosage. Research on analgesic effects
  • Romadhan Surbakti and Ny. Yayang Miryam Arifin. Pharmacology section, FKUI. Research on decreasing cholesterol levels

You can also see the efficacy of avocado, grape, apple

Fruit Efficacy: Apple

Apples are rich in vitamins and minerals, and many contain nutrients, energy, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, Vitamin A, Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, Vitamin C, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, carotene, pectin, boron, tannin, flavonoid, ellagic acid, caffeine acid, glutathione, chlorogenic acid.

Efficacy n Benefits of Apple   (Malus Domestica)

Apple plant description:

Apples are not native plant of Indonesia, but the fruit is very popular by our society. Generally consumed as fresh fruit. Apples are deciduous trees and can reach a height of 5 meters. The fruit is round with a diameter of 60-100mm, the outside is red, yellow or pale green with a waxy coating. The pulp is thick and contains lots of juice, it can be crispy or soft and starchy with a sweet smell and sweet taste. In the middle there are many seeds, it has sweet taste slightly acidic, the nature is not hot or cold, and without toxic.

Habitus bush, 3-5 m high. Woody stem, rounded branched, whiteish green. Single, oval, the tip and the end of the leaves are pointed, jagged edges, feathered, on the tip of the branch at 3-15cm long, 2-6cm wide, green pinnate repeats. Compound flowers, the shape of panicles on the tip of the branch, the furry green petals split into five, have many stamens of white yellowish brownish head, with one yellowish white pistil. Fruit rounded end and base of grooved, purplish green. Flattened little seeds brown blackish. The roots are white-browned.

Apples are rich in vitamins and minerals, and many contain nutrients, energy, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, Vitamin A, Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, Vitamin C, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, carotene, pectin, boron, tannin, flavonoid, ellagic acid, caffeine acid, glutathione, chlorogenic acid.

Chemical content & pharmacological effects:

  • Rich in vitamins: Some of the vitamins contained in apples, such as vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B5, vitamin B6, vitamin B9, Vitamin C
  • Rich in minerals: Minerals in apples include calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, and zinc.
  • Phytochemicals: Phytochemicals are antioxidants to fight free radicals from pollution or the environment. This substance also serves to suppress the amount of bad cholesterol (LDL) that can cause blockage of blood vessels.
  • Rich in Fiber: Good for people who are on a diet program. This is because the fiber is so high that it prevents hunger coming faster. Fiber to reduce fat and cholesterol. Apple contains fiber that is useful to bind fat and bad cholesterol in the body to be removed.
  • Tannins: Tannin is a substance that works to clean and refresh the mouth, so it can prevent tooth decay and gum disease, preventing tooth decay, gum and plaque
  • Boron: What is boron? Boron serves to maintain the amount of estrogen in a woman’s body, helps maintain estrogen levels in the body of women during menopause, reduces pain, depression, heart disease and osteoporosis
  • Flavonoid: One of the good content of apple to prevent disease is flavonoid. Flavonoid is a substance that serves to reduce the risk of cancer.
  • D-glucaric acid: What is D-glucaric acid? D-glucaric acid is a substance that can lower cholesterol levels.
  • Quercetin: Quercetin is a necessary substance to increase antioxidant levels so that the body feels healthier and prevents various diseases.
  • Tartar acid: Tartar acid that can nourish the digestive tract, because this substance is able to kill bacteria in the digestive tract.

Potions and Dosage:

Usage Dose:

  1. Internal use:

1-4 fresh apples are eaten

1-2 tbsp apple vinegar

  1. External use: Sufficient for masks


  1. Alopecia / hair loss: 1 apple + red onion 1 cloves + garlic 1 clove + carrot 100gr + celery 1 stick + water 100ml, blender all ingredients drink 2x a day.
  2. Hemorrhoids: 2sdm apple vinegar + 150 ml boiled water drink 3x a day after meals
  3. Anemia: apple 300gr + 125gr spinach + enough water, blender all, drink 1x a day.
  4. Antiaging / prevent premature aging: 1 apple + green grape 100gr + celery 1 stem + water 50ml, blender all drink 2x a day.
  5. Anti-cancer: apple 100gr + celery stalk 50gr + cauliflower 100gr + broccoli 100gr, blender all ingredients into juice drink 2x a day.

Other benefits: apple vinegar can be for salad dressings, such as pickles and seasonings. Can also be drunk like a drink of freshness, served hot / cold with or without honey, like coffee / tea.


Consume the apples with their skin are better.

Imported apples are usually coated with wax on the skin for:

  1. Cover the pores of the skin of the fruit to inhibit the rate of respiration, thus prolonging the shelf life
  2. When rubbed with a dry cloth will appear shiny, so it gives the impression clean and fresh


How to remove the wax layer:

  1. Dip briefly into warm water to melt the wax layer, then rub with a dry cloth until clean
  2. Soak in a liquid soap solution that is for food, then rub it clean


Tips on how to make various processed apples for medicine:

  1. Apples dried powder: raw apple fruit, cut into square and dry under the sun, after dry, rolled until become flour and sifted.
  2. Apple tonic: 1 kg of fresh apples, remove the skin, take the middle and cut into small pieces. Add ½ kg of honey and a little water, steam in a sealed container until tender. This tonic can be stored and used at any time.
  3. Apple vinegar: wash ripe apple fruit n cut thin, boil into a pan of water, after it boiling put the fire down, then input the sugar into it let stand 30-40 minutes then lift the filter water, input into the bottle closed tight then add yeast, then close again so that the fermantation process occurs wait 1-2 weeks, then change the bottle cap with gauze to let anaerobic fermentation happen, fermentation again for 2 week so that the acid pH 3-4 the longer the better, after that do pasteurization, just ready to be consumed.


Fruit Efficacy: Grape

Efficacy And Bennefits of Grape         (Vitis Vinifera)

Grape plant description:

The tree of grapes is propagated and reach a length of 10 meters. The fruit is round or oval with a diameter of 10-15mm and clustered. Its surface is soft and smooth, there is often orange powder like wax. The fruit that still raw it’s color is reddish green or purplish black, when ripe rather clear and thin skin.

The pulp contains a lot of juice and has seeds in it. And this type of grape is diverse and can be grouped into three basic types of grape: old word, north American, and hybrids. The color of the fruit skin is variegated, there are yellow, green, red, and purple. Generally grape is consumed in the form of juice, salad, or eaten directly.

Chemical content & pharmacological effects:

  1. Vitamin A: the body needs for eye health, increase immunity, fight against measles, diarrhea, and other infectious diseases.
  2. Thiamin (Vitamin B1): keep skin healthy, antiberiberi, help the process of protein and fat metabolism.
  3. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): it plays a role in the formation of steroid and glycogen molecules as well. Contributing to the growth of body organs, such as skin, hair and nails.
  4. Pyridoxin (Vitamin B6): it serves to normalize brain function, as well as to help proteins, hormones and red blood cells
  5. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): is a free radical antioxidant
  6. Tocopherol (Vitamin E): a powerful antioxidant, able to protect the body from free radicals well. It also plays a role in maintaining the health of various tissues within the organs, ranging from skin tissue, eyes, red blood cells, to the liver.
  7. Vitamin K: plays a role in the formation of circulatory system and wound cover.
  8. Polyphenols: a powerful antioxidant, and can counteract free radicals, prevent cancer cells. Also play a role in protecting body cells from free radical damage, can reduce the risk of heart disease, blood vessels and cancer. 60-70% of the grape polyphenols are present in the seeds.
  9. Flavonoids are also present in the seeds: they function as powerful antioxidants and work as cancer prevention. It also prevent LDL oxidation of coronary artery walls, have antimicrobial effects, and inhibit fat deposits in blood vessels.

Potions and Dosage:

  1. Red urine or pain urination: 250gr fresh grape and wring it to get the juice, then add water as much as grape juice and drink.
  2. Anemia: red grape 1 oz., 1 oz. bits, all blender with 100ml water, then drink 1x a day.
  3. Low blood: 15gr grapes, durian fruit flesh to taste, blender with enough water, then drunk.
  4. Increase female fertility: 100gr green grape, 2 ripe mangoes, 2 ripe peaches, 125ml juice of sweet oranges, blender all ingredients in juice drink 2x a day.
  5. Prevent premature aging: 1oz grapes, 1oz spinach, sweetened orange juice 150ml, 100ml water, all blended ingredients, split into 2 glasses, drink 2 times a day.

Note: It is not advisable to eat excessive amounts of grape

Fruit Efficacy: Avocado

Efficacy  and Benefits Of Avocado Fruit (Persea Americana)

Avocado plant description :
The tree, high can reach 10 meters, woody stems, and branches. It has single leaves are oval and green. Inflorescence is a panicles, growing on the edge of twigs. The fruit oval shape, ribbon shape or round shape. The color of fruit is green or purple. Ripe avocado pulp is yellow or greenish yellow. The roots include taproot roots.

Chemical content & pharmacological effects:

  • Saponin: binds and lowers cholesterol, stimulates immunity, also prevents coronary heart disease, and as an anti-cancer
  • Alkaloids: used for various diseases such as cancer
  • Flavonoids: a group of plant pigments that provide protection against harmful free radical attacks. Also as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-viral. As well as antioxidants, slow aging, lower blood cholesterol, and anti-carcinogenic. Play a role in maintaining integrity of the basic substance to encapsulate body tissue so that it not disintegrates. Also its immense influence on the collagen structure and its ability as an active antioxidant makes flavonoids widely used in the treatment of arthritis and hardening of the arteries. This compound will give the color to the fruits and flowers.
  • Tannin: widely used for vaginal discharge, inflammation, slimming, and antiseptic
  • Polyphenols: as anti-cancer substances
  • Fat oil: single-chain unsaturated fatty acids reach 2.13 grams / 100 grams. That can improve cholesterol levels and protect artery damage. Fatty acids are also oleic acids (such as fatty acids contained in almond and olive oil). Oleic acid is an omega-9 fatty acid that can lower total cholesterol and LDL, but otherwise increase HDL
  • Vitamin A: plays a role in various physiological functions, such as maintaining eye health. Also maintaining cell differentiation processes and maintaining immune function. And it plays a role in protein synthesis process, as well as in reproduction process, and prevents cancer and heart disease.
  • Vitamin B: part of the enzymes that play a role in the body process. For example in producing energy, fat metabolism, cholesterol and carbohydrates. As well as the manufacture of some body compounds such as sex hormones and adrenaline.
  • Vitamin D: helps in the formation and maintenance of bone together with vitamin A and C
  • Vitamin E: acts as an antioxidant that can reduce the adverse effects of free radicals, aging processes, and carcinogens.  Also serves to maintain the integrity of cell membranes, synthetic DNA. It prevent coronary heart disease, prevent miscarriage and sterilization, and prevent menstrual disorders.

Potions and dosage:

Usage Dosage:

  • Internal: 3-6 leaves
  • external: Seeds or pulp sufficiently


  1. Kidney stones: Fresh avocado leaves 7 strands, Water 110 ml. Brewed avocado with 1 glass of water. Drink 2x a day morning and evening. Repeat it until the kidney stone comes out in the form of crystals, sand or froth.
  2. Bronchitis: drink avocado leaf tea
  3. High Blood: Leaf avocado 3 strands, Water 1 cup. Brewed avocado leaves with hot water, leave to cool. Drink the concoction at once
  4. Irregular menstruation: drink avocado leaf tea
  5. Diabetes: Avocado seeds sufficiently. Enough water. Seeds are roasted over a fire and cut into small pieces. Then boiled with clean water until the water becomes brown, then strain. Drink the potion in a cold state


  • Leaves: Kidney Stones, Bronchitis, High Blood, Dysentery, Stomach Pain, Nerve Pain, Bladder Stones, Headache, Stomach Pain, Irregular Menstruation
  • Pulp: Skin Refiner, Sprue, High Cholesterol Levels
  • Seeds: Toothache, Diabetes



Esti mumpuni, 1989.

Faculty of Pharmacy UGM

Advisor: DR. Ediati S. Apt. And DR Sasmito, Apt.

Conducting avocado leaf research to dissolve calcium kidney stones